E-ISSN 2576-3288
 

Original Research 


Prevalence of Depression after Treatment with conventional Interferon’s and Ribavirin therapy in patients with Hepatitis C using PHQ-9

Attiya Sabeen Rahman, Muhammad Amir, Shaista Ahmed, Qaiser Jamal, Mehwish Riaz, Muhammad A Siddiqui.

Abstract
Objective
Hepatitis C infections suffer commonly from interferon alpha induced depression and severe psychiatric disorders. The main purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of depression in patients with hepatitis C infection after treatment with conventional interferon’s and ribavirin
Methods
The cross-sectional study was conducted from June 2015 to May 2017 in a tertiary care hospital in Karachi. Two Residents from department were trained to take patients' history and conduct interview according to the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) questionnaire1. A favourable ethical opinion was obtained from the institutional ethical review committee and after taking informed consent, patient's short history was initially taken. Depression and its severity was also seen and compared between genders.
Results
Fifteen hundred and seventy-one (n=1571) participants who met the study’s inclusion criteria were participated, of which 41.5% (n=652) participants were male and 58.8% (n=919) were female. Average treatment duration of the study participants was 5.56±1.04 months ranged from 1 to 9 months. Overall, more than two-third of participants were having mild (38.1%), and moderate (48.9%) depression. Participants were asked multiple questions regarding self-reporting depression component. Most of the participants reported that they experience little interest or pleasure in doing things (70.8%) and having trouble falling or staying asleep or sleeping too much (39.2%) for more than half a day. Similarly, more than half of the participants having difficulty on concentrating things such as reading the newspaper or watching television (58.6%). However, majority of participant do not think that it would be better off dead, or of hurting there self (73%). Out of 1571 patients, 42.9% male and 57.1% female patients had minimal or no depression. Moderate depression was found in 44.1% male and 55.9% female patients. Similarly, moderately severe depression was found in 40.8% male and 59.2% in female patients. Prevalence of depression among patients with hepatitis C was not found to be associated with gender (χ2(4)=7.5, p<0.11),
Conclusion
The prevalence of depression in patients with Hepatitis C appears to be very high compared to that in Western patients. IFN α and Ribavirin induced depression was seen after 24 weeks of treatment; however, different study reports that depressive events with IFN α and Ribavirin occurred more frequently during the first 24 weeks of therapy than during later period of 48 weeks. Active screening and multidisciplinary management of depression is warranted.

Key words: Hepatitis C, depression, prevalence, gender, quality of life


 
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Pubmed Style

Rahman AS, Amir M, Ahmed S, Jamal Q, Riaz M, MAS, . Prevalence of Depression after Treatment with conventional Interferon’s and Ribavirin therapy in patients with Hepatitis C using PHQ-9. Am J Res Med Sci. 2019; 5(1): 1-6. doi:10.5455/ajrms.20181102081059


Web Style

Rahman AS, Amir M, Ahmed S, Jamal Q, Riaz M, MAS, . Prevalence of Depression after Treatment with conventional Interferon’s and Ribavirin therapy in patients with Hepatitis C using PHQ-9. http://www.ajrms.com/?mno=4129 [Access: July 22, 2019]. doi:10.5455/ajrms.20181102081059


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Rahman AS, Amir M, Ahmed S, Jamal Q, Riaz M, MAS, . Prevalence of Depression after Treatment with conventional Interferon’s and Ribavirin therapy in patients with Hepatitis C using PHQ-9. Am J Res Med Sci. 2019; 5(1): 1-6. doi:10.5455/ajrms.20181102081059



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Rahman AS, Amir M, Ahmed S, Jamal Q, Riaz M, MAS, . Prevalence of Depression after Treatment with conventional Interferon’s and Ribavirin therapy in patients with Hepatitis C using PHQ-9. Am J Res Med Sci. (2019), [cited July 22, 2019]; 5(1): 1-6. doi:10.5455/ajrms.20181102081059



Harvard Style

Rahman, A. S., Amir, . M., Ahmed, . S., Jamal, . Q., Riaz, . M., , . M. A. S. & (2019) Prevalence of Depression after Treatment with conventional Interferon’s and Ribavirin therapy in patients with Hepatitis C using PHQ-9. Am J Res Med Sci, 5 (1), 1-6. doi:10.5455/ajrms.20181102081059



Turabian Style

Rahman, Attiya Sabeen, Muhammad Amir, Shaista Ahmed, Qaiser Jamal, Mehwish Riaz, Muhammad A Siddiqui, and . 2019. Prevalence of Depression after Treatment with conventional Interferon’s and Ribavirin therapy in patients with Hepatitis C using PHQ-9. American Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, 5 (1), 1-6. doi:10.5455/ajrms.20181102081059



Chicago Style

Rahman, Attiya Sabeen, Muhammad Amir, Shaista Ahmed, Qaiser Jamal, Mehwish Riaz, Muhammad A Siddiqui, and . "Prevalence of Depression after Treatment with conventional Interferon’s and Ribavirin therapy in patients with Hepatitis C using PHQ-9." American Journal of Research in Medical Sciences 5 (2019), 1-6. doi:10.5455/ajrms.20181102081059



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Rahman, Attiya Sabeen, Muhammad Amir, Shaista Ahmed, Qaiser Jamal, Mehwish Riaz, Muhammad A Siddiqui, and . "Prevalence of Depression after Treatment with conventional Interferon’s and Ribavirin therapy in patients with Hepatitis C using PHQ-9." American Journal of Research in Medical Sciences 5.1 (2019), 1-6. Print. doi:10.5455/ajrms.20181102081059



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Rahman, A. S., Amir, . M., Ahmed, . S., Jamal, . Q., Riaz, . M., , . M. A. S. & (2019) Prevalence of Depression after Treatment with conventional Interferon’s and Ribavirin therapy in patients with Hepatitis C using PHQ-9. American Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, 5 (1), 1-6. doi:10.5455/ajrms.20181102081059





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